Uffe Ravnskov

My life and my work

I was born 1934 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After having achieved my MD at the University of Copenhagen in 1961 I received my clinical education in various hospitals in Denmark and Sweden. From 1968 to 1979 I was appointed at the Department of Nephrology and the Department of Clinical Chemistry at the University Hospital of Lund, in about five years as an associate professor. From 1980 I worked as a private practitioner in internal medicine till my retirement in October 2000. From that year I have worked full-time as an independent researcher.

My research in nephrology

My first original observation, the association between heart aneurysm and the post-myocardial-infarction syndrome, was made during my service at the Department of Medicine in Sandviken between 1964 and 1967.1-3,35 

In my Ph.D. thesis, On Renal Handling of Serum Proteins from 197313 I introduced the albumin/creatinine clearance ratio, a more accurate way to measure proteinuria and I was the first to describe the peritubular uptake of low-molecular-weight proteins.7,21,24 My findings that most patients with glomerulonephritis excrete large amounts of tubular proteins6 and tubulospecific enzymes39 supported my more recent theory that glomerulonephritis primarily is a tubulointerstitial disease (see below). In experimental studies I demonstrated that the renal handling of proteins differs in man and other mammals19,28 implying that knowledge from animal studies cannot be applied to man.

I was the first in Sweden to acknowledge the lack of association between urinary tract infection and chronic pyelonephritis20 and I also introduced the principle of ultra-short treatment of urinary tract infections in Sweden51-53,55 although with little immediate success. In a study of urinary tract infection in women I found that the major cause of dysuria was soap, not bacteria.43-46 

My major research interest concerns the association between hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis initiated by the 1975 Lancet report by Stephen Zimmerman and his coworkers, who found that the large majority of their patients with glomerulonephritis on dialysis treatment had been heavily exposed to industrial solvents in the past.

My first original observation in this area was a study of 15 patients with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, ten of whom had been exposed to hydrocarbon solvents before or during the period between the streptococcal infection and the acute onset of the glomerulonephritis.31,32 I was also the first to demonstrate that a discontinuation of hydrocarbon exposure may improve the course of glomerulonephritis,49 a finding that has been confirmed by follow-up studies of British researchers.

In a recent meta-analysis I demonstrated that the discordant results from previous case-control studies can be explained by a selection bias: heavy exposure is mainly seen in patients with chronic or end-stage renal failure implying that the most important effect of the exposure is a worsening of renal function, and that progressive renal failure may be prevented by discontinuation of the exposure.113 These observations together inspired me to develop a new theory behind the genesis of glomerulonephritis, the toxic-allergic hypothesis.48,56,59,60,73,106,112,114,116,160 

My research on cholesterol and the diet-heart idea

After the introduction of the cholesterol campaign in Sweden in 1989 I started to study the alleged associations between dietary fat, high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Very soon I realised that the scientific evidence behind the campaign was non-existing and since then I have published more than 80 papers and letters critical to the cholesterol hypothesis and the diet-heart idea.

In one of my most important contributions, a meta-analysis of the cholesterol-lowering trials published in BMJ in 199271 I demonstrated that coronary mortality was not lowered by cholesterol lowering, but total mortality was increased. In the same paper I also showed that trials with an allegedly positive outcome was cited almost only by the trial directors, although the numbers of trials with an allegedly positive and a negative outcome were identical. In other papers I have documented in more detail, that the successful dissemination of the diet-heart idea is due to authors systematically ignoring or misquoting discordant studies.98,133,138  

I was also the first to suggest that the positive effect of the statins may be due to other effects than cholesterol-lowering,99,100 a view that has gained widespread acceptance. In a little-recognised paper I pointed to the crucial lack of association between the cholesterol concentration in the blood and the degree of atherosclerosis in the arteries.64 a fact that I have documented in more detail more recently.140

In 1991 I summarised my criticism in a book, Kolesterolmyten, which was first published in Sweden67 and the following year in Finland,68 where it was literally put on fire in a television program. In 2000 an updated and expanded version, The Cholesterol Myths, appeared in the United States,120 and in 2002 also in Germany.134

In 2003 I published a review of the many studies that have shown LDL to be protective against infections, and put forward the hypothesis that high cholesterol, rather than promoting atherosclerosis, in fact may protect against it.145

 

A complete list of my scientific publications

  1. Ravnskov U. Fall av PMI-syndrom. Läkartidningen 1967; 64: 436-8.

  2.  Ravnskov U. Aneurysm of the heart and the post-myocardial-infarction. Acta Med Scand 1968; 183: 393-5.

  3. Ravnskov U. Fluctuating pericardial effusion. N Engl J Med 1969; 281: 854.

  4. Lindholm T, Ravnskov U. Bakteriuri och pyuri - är det farligt? Läkartidningen 1972;  69: 3538-41

  5. Hegedüs V, Ravnskov U. Cortical volume in apparently normal kidneys. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1972; 6: 159-65.

  6. Johansson BG, Ravnskov U. The serum level and urinary excretion of a 2-microglobulin, ß2-microglobulin and lysozyme in renal disease Scand J Urol Nephrol 1972; 6: 249-56.

  7. Ravnskov U, Johansson BG, Göthlin J. Renal extraction of ß2-microglobulin. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1972; 30: 71-75.

  8. Ravnskov U. Muramidase and acute rejection of kidney grafts. Lancet 1972; 2: 716.

  9. BG Johansson, Ravnskov U. Analyses of proteins in urine. Aids and limitations. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1972; 29,suppl 126.

  10. Johansson BG, Ravnskov U. Urinproteinanalys vid kadmiumförgiftning. Läkartidningen 1973; 70: 2310 .

  11. Ravnskov U. Uremic polyneuropathic motor paralysis and immobili­za­tion hypercalcemia. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1973; 7: 63-67.

  12. Ravnskov U. Urinary tract infection with disappearance of urinary creatinine. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1973; 7: 94-5.

  13. Ravnskov U. On renal handling of plasma proteins. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1973; 7 (suppl 20) [Thesis]

  14. Ravnskov U. Albuminuria in acute and chronic renal failure. Acta Med Scand 1973; 194: 59-64.

  15. Ravnskov U. Proteinuria after renal transplantation. 1. Excretion of a 2-microglobulin, ß2-microglobulin, lysozyme and albumin. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1974; 8: 37-44.

  16. Ravnskov U. Proteinuria after renal transplantation. 2. A functional identification of two types of rejection crisis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1974; 8: 45-49.

  17. Ravnskov U, Johansson BG. Renal handling of ß2-microglobulin. Protides of the biological fluids. 1974; 21: 513-517.

  18. Krogh P, Axelsen NH, Elling F, Gyrd-Hansen N, Hald B, Hyldgaard-Jensen J, Larsen AE, Madsen A, Mortensen HP, Møller T, Petersen OK, Ravnskov U, Rostgaard M, Aalund O. Experimental porcine nephropathy. Changes of renal function and structure induced by Ochratoxin A-contaminated feed. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Suppl 246, 1974. 

  19. Ravnskov U, Johansson BG, Ljunger L. Proteinuria in pigs with experimentally induced renal damage. Contributions to Nephrology 1975; 1: 50-61.

  20. Ravnskov U. Långtidsprognosen vid urinvägsinfektion och asymtomatisk bakteriuri. Läkartidningen 1975; 72: 1796-98

  21. Ravnskov U, Karatson A. Renal handling of human ß2-microglobulin in the rat: The importance of sham-operation. Acta Physiol Scand 1975; 94: 467-471.

  22. Ravnskov U. Low molecular weight proteinuria in association with paroxysmal myoglobinuria. Clin Nephrol 1975; 3: 65-69.

  23. Ekman R, Johansson BG, Ravnskov U. Renal handling of Zn-alfa2-glycoprotein as compared with that of albumin and the retinol-binding protein. J Clin Invest 1976; 57: 945-954.

  24. Ravnskov U. Serum ß2-microglobulin and glomerular function. N Engl J Med 1976;294:611.

  25. Ravnskov U. Medikaliserat samhälle?. Läkartidningen 1976; 73: 1298

  26. Krogh P, Elling F, Gyrd-Hansen N, Hald B, Larsen AE, Lillehøj EB, A Madsen,HP Mortensen, Ravnskov U. Experimental porcine nephropathy: changes of renal function and structure perorally induced by crystalline ochratoxin A. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1976; 84 A: 429-434.

  27. Svensson L, Ravnskov U. a1-microglobulin, a new low molecular weight plasma protein. Clin Chim Acta 1976; 73:415-422.

  28. Ravnskov U, Johansson BG. Isolation and partial characterization of a porcine low molecular weight protein occurring in plasma and urine. Internat J Biochem 1976; 7: 579-583.

  29. Eksmyr R, Fex G, Jagell S, Johansson BG, Ravnskov U, Samuels­son G. Low molecular weight proteinuria and slight hyper­lipopro­teinemia in three mentally retarded brothers. Acta Pædiatr Scand 65, 521-525, 1976.

  30. Ravnskov U, Dahlbäck O, Messeter L. Treatment of glomerulonephritis with drainage of the thoracic duct and plasmapheresis. Acta Med Scand 202, 489-494, 1977.

  31. Ravnskov U. Exposure to organic solvents in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Lancet 1977; 2: 258

  32. Ravnskov U. Exposure to organic solvents - a missing link in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis? Acta Med Scand 1978; 203: 351-356.

  33. Ravnskov U. Steroidbehandling av Dresslers syndrom? Läkartidningen 1978; 75: 768.

  34. Ravnskov U. Bakteriuri og vejen til iatrogenese. Ugeskr Læger 1978; 140: 2256-2257.

  35. Ravnskov U, Forsberg B. Improvement of glomerulonephritis after discontinuation of solvent exposure. Lancet 1979;1:1194

  36. Ravnskov U, Forsberg B, Skerfving S. Glomerulonephritis and hydrocarbon exposure - a case control study. Acta Med Scand 1979; 205:575-579.

  37. Ravnskov U. Acute glomerulonephritis and exposure to organic solvents in father and daughter. Acta Med Scand 1979; 205: 581-582.

  38. Krogh P, Elling F, Friis C, Hald B, Larsen AE, Lillehøj EB, Madsen A, Mortensen HP, Rasmussen F, Ravnskov U. Porcine nephropathy induced by long-term ingestion of ochratoxin A. Vet Pathol 1979; 16: 466-475.

  39. Hultberg B, Ravnskov U. The excretion of N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase in glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 1981; 15: 33-8.

  40. Ravnskov U. Strikta indikationer, kort tids terapi - lösningen på sulfaproblemet. Läkartidningen. 1982; 79: 1350.

  41. Ravnskov U, Lundström S, Nordén Å. Hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis: evidence from patients' occupations. Lancet 1983; 2: 1214-16.

  42. Ravnskov U. Hydrocarbon exposure and glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1983; 36 :143.

  43. Ravnskov U. Soap is the major cause of dysuria. Lancet 1983; 1: 1027-8

  44. Ravnskov U. Dysuri kan orsakas av tvål. Läkartidningen 1985; 82:  836

  45. Ravnskov U. Dysuri skyldes som regel sæbe. Ugeskr Læger 1985; 147: 1493-94.

  46. Ravnskov U Sæbe og dysuri. Ugeskr Læger 1985; 147: 2093

  47. Ravnskov U. Glomerulonephritis and organic solvents. Lancet 1985; 2: 566

  48. Ravnskov U. Possible mechanisms of hydrocarbon-associated glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 1985; 23: 294-298.

  49. Ravnskov U. Influence of hydrocarbon exposure on the course of glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1986; 42: 156-160.

  50. Ravnskov U. Glomerulonefrit och organiska lösningsmedel. Läkartidningen 1986; 83: 1080-3

  51. Ravnskov U. Singeldos-behandling av okomplicerad cystit och asymtomatisk bakteriuri. En översikt. Läkartidningen 1986; 83: 45-47.

  52. Ravnskov U. Behandlingstidens längd vid urinvägsinfektion. Läkartidningen 1987; 84: 1339.

  53. Ravnskov U. Avvisa inte singeldosbehandlingen vid urinvägsinfektion! Läkartidningen 1987; 84: 1535.

  54. Ravnskov U. Hepatitis B virus and glomerulonephritis. Lancet 1987; 2: 691

  55. Ravnskov U. Singeldos vid urinvägsinfektion fungerar med rätt dos och rätt preparat. Läkartidningen 1987; 84: 2946.

  56. Ravnskov U. Focal glomerular lesions in glomerulonephritis may be secondary to tubulointerstitial damage. Am J Kidney Dis 1988; 12: 250-251.

  57. Ravnskov U. Accusations of fraud. Lancet 1988;1:91

  58. Ravnskov U. Patientförsäkringen och Larssons arm. Läkartidningen 1989; 86: 3901-2.

  59. Ravnskov U. Non-systemic glomerulonephritis: Exposure to nephro- and immunotoxic chemicals is primary and predisposes to immunologic harassment. Med Hypotheses 30, 115-122, 1989.

  60. Ravnskov U. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in acute renal failure. N Engl J Med 1989;320:1218

  61. Ravnskov, U. Lowering cholesterol concentrations and mortality. BMJ 1990; 301: 814.

  62. Ravnskov U. Glomerulonephritis, renal carcinoma, and solvent exposure: bias from choice of referents. Brit J Indust Med 47, 791-92, 1990

  63. Ravnskov U. Kolesterolmyten. Månedsskrift f praktisk Lægeger­ning 1991; 70: 131-8.

  64. Ravnskov U. An elevated serum cholesterol is secondary, not causal, in coronary heart disease. Medical Hypotheses 1991; 36: 238-41.

  65. Ravnskov U. Atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Lancet 338, 1328, 1991.

  66. Ravnskov U. Är fleromättat fett nyttigt? Läkartidningen 1991; 88: 1058

  67. Ravnskov U. Kolesterolmyten (The Cholesterol Myth). Stockholm : Streifferts, 1991

  68. Ravnskov U. Kolesteroli. Helsinki : Art House, 1992 (Finnish translation of Kolesterolmyten.

  69. Ravnskov U. Hvad er det rigtige svar i kolesteroldebatten? Ugeskr Læger 1992;154:1716

  70. Ravnskov U. Kolesterol och hälsa: En titt under mattan. Livsmedelsteknik1992;4:7-8.

  71. Ravnskov U. Cholesterol lowering trials in coronary heart disease: frequency of citation and outcome. BMJ 1992;305: 15-19. Letters: BMJ 1992; 305: 420-422, and 717.

  72. Ravnskov U. The fragile links of the diet-heart chain. Nutrition Quarterly 1992; 16:19-21.

  73. Ravnskov U. Hydrocarbons and renal failure: Primary damage in glomerulonephritis is tubular, not glomerular. Nephron 1992;61: 243

  74. Ravnskov U. Cardiovascular disease in developing countries. BMJ 1993; 306: 145-6.

  75. Ravnskov U. Tveksamheter om kolesterol. Suomen Lääkarilehti 1993; 48: 1063-1064.

  76. Ravnskov U. Flera tveksamheter om kolesterol. Suomen Lääkarilehti 1993; 48: 1716-1717.

  77. Ravnskov U. Tvivlsomme råd om kolesterolscreening hos børn. Ugeskrift for Læger 1993; 155:1886-1887.

  78. Ravnskov U. Beredskap mot forskningsfusk. Läkartidningen 1993; 90: 2116.

  79. Ravnskov U. Nya tongånger från USA. Kolesterolkampanjen ifrågasättas. Läkartidningen 1993; 90: 2528-2529.

  80. Ravnskov U. Benskörhet kan vara iatrogen - skona ägg­stockarna! Läkartidningen 1993; 90: 3844

  81. Ravnskov U. Stoppa kolesterolkampanjen! Läkartidningen 1993; 90: 4587-4588.

  82. Ravnskov U. Livet forkortes når kolesterolet sænkes. Ugeskrift for Læger 1993;155: 3678-9.

  83. Ravnskov U. Reducing serum cholesterol. Lower cholesterol of doubtful benefit to anyone. BMJ 1993; 307: 125.

  84. Ravnskov U. Coronary atherosclerosis on angiography-progress or regress and why? Circulation 1993; 88: 1358-9.

  85. Ravnskov U. Dietary fats and blood lipids as cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. A critical overview. Proceedings of the I. World Congress of Dairy Products in Human Health and Nutrition. Madrid 1993. Rotterdam: Balkema 1994, p 361-369.

  86. Ravnskov U. Kolesterolsænkende lægemidler. Ugeskrift for Læger 1994; 156: 329

  87. Ravnskov U. Ukritisk referat af kolesterolartikler. Ugeskrift for Læger 1994; 156: 4479

  88. Ravnskov U. Renal complement synthesis in glomerulonephritis. Lancet 1994; 343: 235-6.

  89. Ravnskov U. Hypercholesterolemia does not cause coronary heart disease - evidence from the nephrotic syndrome. Nephron 1994; 66: 356-7.

  90. Ravnskov U. Ischaemic heart disease and cholesterol. Optimism about drug treatment is unjustified. BMJ 1994; 308: 1038.

  91. Ravnskov U. Is there a cause-effect relationship between high blood cholesterol and atherosclerosis? Workshop on cholesterol-lowering trials. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda 1994.

  92. Ravnskov U. What do angiographic changes after cholesterol lowering mean? Lancet 1994; 344: 1297.

  93. Ravnskov U. Is intake of trans-fatty acids and saturated fat causal in coronary heart disease? Circulation 1994; 90: 2568-9.

  94. Ravnskov U. Doing the right thing: stop worrying about cholesterol. Circulation 1994; 90: 2572-3.

  95. Ravnskov U. Slutreplik om kolesterol. Läkartidningen 1994; 91: 117-8

  96. Ravnskov U. Fedtsyrer og forvirrende signaler. Ugeskrift for Læger 1995; 157: 1534-5.

  97. Ravnskov U. Keys eller kaos. Ugeskrift for Læger 1995; 157: 3210

  98. Ravnskov U. Quotation bias in reviews of the diet-heart idea. J Clin Epidemiol 1995; 48: 713-9.

  99. Ravnskov U. Implications of 4S evidence on baseline lipid levels. Lancet 1995; 346: 181.

  100. Ravnskov U. Beneficial effects of simvastatin may be due to non-lipid actions. BMJ 1995; 311: 1436-7.

  101. Ravnskov U. The American College of Physicians guidelines on cholesterol screening. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 1010-1.

  102. Ravnskov U. Ger medikamentell kolesterolsänkning cancer? Läkartidningen 1996; 93: 2040.

  103. Ravnskov U. Är fleromättat fett en orsak till manlig sterilitet? Läkartidningen 1996; 93: 2040

  104. Ravnskov U. Auktoriteter kräver tolkningsföreträde. Läkartidningen 1997; 95: 1024-5.

  105. Ravnskov U. Myten om det mättade och det fleromättade fettet. Tidskriften Medikament 1998; 3(4): 44-51 och 1998; 3(5): 48-53

  106. Ravnskov U. The subepithelial formation of immune complexes in membranous glomerulonephritis may be harmless and secondary to allergic or toxic factors. Scand J Immunol 1998; 48: 469-74.

  107. Ravnskov U. "Medelhavsdietens" förträfflighet är en myt. Läkartidningen 1998; 95: 4749-50.

  108. Ravnskov U. Om hederlighet och enomättat fett. Läkartidningen 1998; 95: 4966.

  109. Ravnskov U. The questionable role of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1998; 51: 443-60.   Read also a dissent to the paper: Golomb BA. Dietary fats and heart disease-dogma challenged? and my answer; same journal and same issue. This paper won the Skrabanek award 1999

  110. Ravnskov U. Why heart disease mortality is low in France. Author´s hypothesis is wrong. BMJ 1999; 319: 255

  111. Ravnskov U. Lösningsmedel och drivmedel orsakar kronisk njursvikt. Tidskriften Medikament 1999; 2: 80-4.

  112. Ravnskov U. Glomerular, tubular and interstitial nephritis associated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Evidence of a common mechanism. Brit J Clin Pharmacol 1999; 47: 203-10.

  113. Ravnskov U. Hydrocarbons may worsen renal function in glomerulonephritis: a meta-analysis of the case-control studies. Am J Indust Med 2000; 37: 599-606.

  114. Ravnskov U. Hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function:evidence based on Hill´s criteria for causality. QJM 2000; 93: 551-6.

  115. Ravnskov U. VAT and fat. Evidence is contradictory. BMJ 2000; 320: 1470

  116. Ravnskov U. Glomerulonefrit – en yrkessjukdom – nya rön om en sjukdom associerad med exposition för njurtoxiska ämnen. Läkartidningen 2000; 97: 3978-9.

  117. Ravnskov U. Prevention of atherosclerosis in children. Lancet 2000; 355: 69.

  118. Ravnskov U. Är motion överlägsen statinbehandling? Läkartidningen 2000; 97: 2177

  119. Ravnskov U. Varför blir kranskärl aterosklerotiska? Läkartidningen 2000; 98: 41

  120. Ravnskov U. The Cholesterol Myths. Washington: New Trends Publishing, 2000

  121. Ravnskov U. Cholesterol and all-cause mortality in Honolulu. Lancet 2001; 358: 1907.

  122. Ravnskov U. Nya intressanta fakta i Science och BMJ...Synen på matens fett håller på att förändras.  Tidskriften Medikament 2001: 5

  123. Ravnskov U. Statinbehandling vid akut hjärtinfarkt väl optimistiskt refererat i massmedierna. Läkartidningen 2001; 98: 2370

  124. Ravnskov U. Koständringar förebygger inte hjärtinfarkt. Läkartidningen 2001; 98: 3926

  125. Ravnskov U. Transfettsyra-den verkliga kostboven vid hjärtinfarkt? Läkartidningen 2001; 98:4060.

  126. Ravnskov U. Amerikansk kolesterol-policy kan leda till sjukförklaring av miljontals friska. Läkartidningen 2001;98:4574-4577.

  127. Ravnskov U. Lipidsänkning påverkar inte utvecklingen av ateroskleros vid benartärsjukdom. Läkartidningen 2001; 98: 4897-8.

  128. Ravnskov U. Suicide of the nephron is preventable. Lancet 2001; 357

  129. Nilsson, P, Ravnskov U. Brevväxling. Tidskriften Medikament 2002; 1: 26-27

  130. Ravnskov U. Överoptimistiskt referat av ny statinstudie. Läkartidningen 2002; 99: 949-50

  131. Ravnskov U. Ju färre måltider desto högre kolesterol. Läkartidningen 2002; 99: 1356.

  132. Ravnskov U. Surrogatforskning om hjärtsjukdom och riskfaktorer. Läkartidningen 2002; 99: 1507

  133. Ravnskov U. Debatt i Science: Kostråd mot hjärtinfarkt försvaras med felcitat. Läkartidningen 2002; 99: 2673.

  134. Ravnskov U, Pollmer, U. Mythos Cholesterin. Die zehn größten Irrtümer. Stuttgart: Hirzel Verlag 2002.

  135. Ravnskov U. Kan brist på omega-3-fettsyror orsaka plötslig hjärtdöd? Läkartidningen 2002; 99: 3860

  136. Ravnskov U. Den tveksamma nyttan av att stämma i bäcken. Tidskriften Medikament 2002; 8: 68-72

  137. Ravnskov U. Diet-heart disease hypothesis is wishful thinking. BMJ 2002; 324: 238

  138. Ravnskov U, Allan C, Atrens D, Enig MG, Groves B, Kaufman J, Kroneld R, Rosch PJ, Rosenman R, Werkö L, Nielsen JV, Wilske J, Worm N. Studies of dietary fat and heart disease. Science 2002; 295: 1464-5.

  139. Ravnskov U. Statins as the new Aspirin. Conclusions from the heart protection study were premature. BMJ 2002; 324: 789.

  140. Ravnskov U. Is atherosclerosis caused by high cholesterol? QJM 2002; 95: 397-403. This paper was also selected for publication in the third issue of South African Excerpts Edition of the QJM 2002

  141. Ravnskov U. A hypothesis out-of-date: The diet-heart idea. J Clin Epidemiol,  2002; 55:1057-63. Same issue: Dissent by W.S.Weintraub, and Reply by U. Ravnskov . An evaluation of our discussion is available 

  142. Ravnskov U. ASCOTT-LLA: Questions about the benefits of atorvastatin. Lancet 2003; 361: 1986.

  143. Ravnskov U. Lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk. Lancet 2003; 361: 1988-9.

  144. Ravnskov U. The retreat of the diet-heart hypothesis. J Amer Phys Surg  2003; 8: 94-95

  145. Ravnskov U. High cholesterol may protect against infections and atherosclerosis. QJM 2003; 96: 927-34. 

  146. Ravnskov U. Dietary fat intake and risk of stroke. Allegations about dietary fat are unfounded. BMJ 2003;  327: 1348 

  147. Ravnskov U. LDL-kolesterol eller C-reaktivt protein – vilken riskfaktor väger tyngst? Läkartidningen 2003; 100: 696

  148. Ravnskov U. Statiner ökar risken för cancer hos äldre. Läkartidningen 2003; 100: 974

  149. Ravnskov U. Man blir inte fet av fett utan av för många kalorier och för lite motion. Läkartidningen 2003; 100: 3255-6.

  150. Ravnskov U. Ingen vinst sänka kolesterolet så mycket som möjligt  Läkartidningen  2004; 101: 549

  151. Ravnskov U. Högt kolesterol skyddar mot infektioner och troligen även mot åderförkalkning. Läkartidningen 2004; 101: 1215-7.

  152. Ravnskov U. Kolesterolkampanjens tysta reträtt. Tidskriften Medikament 2004; 9: 18-20.

  153. Ravnskov U. Vilse i pannkaken - älsklingshypotes om kolesterol. I B. Johansson (edit): Forskare klargör. Myter om maten, p. 89-96. Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näringar och samhällsbyggande, FORMAS, Stockholm 2004.

  154. Ravnskov U. Forhastede konklusioner om hjertedødeligheden i Norge. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen  2004; 124:  2153.

  155. Ravnskov U. Karl Popper og kolesterolhypotesen. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2004; 124: 2517

  156. Ravnskov U. Inflammation, Cholesterol Levels, and Risk of Mortality Among Patients Receiving Dialysis. JAMA 2004; 291: 1833-4.

  157. Ravnskov U, Sutter MC.  Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy and regression of coronary atheroma. JAMA. 2004; 292: 38 

  158. Ravnskov U, Rosch P, Sutter MC. Intensive lipid-lowering with atorvastatin in coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 94.

  159. Ravnskov U. Mjölk ökar inte risken för hjärtkärlsjukdom. Läkartidningen 2005; 102: 2463

  160. Ravnskov U. Bör kolesterolet sänkas mera effektivt? Läkartidningen 2005; 102: 2583. 

  161. Ravnskov U. Dietary fat is not the villain. BMJ 2005; 331: 906-7.  

  162. Ravnskov U. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure. A review. BMC Nephrology 2005;6:15-

  163. Ravnskov U. Vem bedrar vem i fetmadebatten? Medicinsk Access 2006;(1):55-56.

  164. Ravnskov U. Kommentar till The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. 2000-talets Vetenskap. 8 Feb. 2006.

  165. Ravnskov U. Missvisande råd om kolesterolsänkning. Läkartidningen 2006;103:568

  166. Ravnskov U, Rosch PJ, Sutter MC, Houston MC. Should we lower cholesterol as much as possible? BMJ 2006;332:1330-1332.

  167. Ravnskov U, Rosch PJ, Sutter MC. High-Dose Statins and the IDEAL Study. JAMA 2006;295:2476. 

  168. Ravnskov U. Behandling af hyperkolesterolæmi - lower is not better. Ugeskrift for Læger 2006;168(17):1665

  169. Ravnskov U. Åderförkalkning beror inte på obalans i apolipoproteinerna. Läkartidningen 2006;103:e35-36

  170. Ravnskov U. Mer kritisk syn på medicinnyheter efterlyses. Dagens Medicin 6. september 2006

  171. Ravnskov U. Kolhydratsnål kost minskar behovet av statinbehandling Läkartidningen 2006;103:3017-18

  172. Ravnskov U. Är det vettigt att rekommendera kolhydrater till diabetiker? Medicinsk Access 2006; 7/8:80-81

  173. Ravnskov U. Riskabelt att sänka kolesterolet så mycket som möjligt. Läkemedelsvärlden 30 aug 2006

  174. Ravnskov U. Saturated fat does not affect blood cholesterol Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:1550-51. Läs även Martijn B Katan´s svar samt en diskussion kring vår korrespondans av Michael R Eades och andre.

  175. Ravnskov U. Lack of Evidence for Recommended Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Treatment Targets. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:614.Ravnskov U. Ovetenskapligt när röstning avgör kostråd. Dagens Medicin 10. oktober 2007

  176. Ravnskov U. Vissa forskare vägrar släppa sina hypoteser. Dagens Medicin 27. februari 2008

  177. Ravnskov U. Fett och kolesterol är hälsosamt! Optimal Förlag, Stockholm 2008. Recension (på sidan 63)

  178. Ravnskov U. Kolesterol - myter og realiteter. Hovedland, Århus, Danmark 2008

  179. Ravnskov U. Cholesterol lowering and mortality: A sea of contradictions.Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17:e25-7

  180. Accurso A et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutr Metabol 2008, 5:9

  181. Ravnskov U. Re: The Association Between Statins and Cancer Incidence in a Veterans Population.J Ntl Cancer Inst 2008; doi: 10.1093/jnci/djn160

  182. Ravnskov U. Should medical science ignore the past? BMJ 2008;337:a1681

  183. Ravnskov U. The fallacies of the lipid hypothesis. Scand Cardiovasc J 2008;42-236-239

  184. Ravnskov U, McCully KM. Vulnerable plaque formation from obstruction of vasa vasorum by homocysteinylated and oxidized lipoprotein aggregates complexed with microbial remnants and LDL autoantibodies. Ann Clin Lab Sci in press.

 


Updated November 30., 2008