TheCholesterol Myths by UffeRavnskov, M.D., Ph.D.


1. Dattilo AM,Kris-Etherton PM. Effectsof weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition1992;56:320-328.

2. Craig WE, PalomakiGE, Haddow JE. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoproteinconcentrations: an analysis of published data. British MedicalJournal 1989;298:784-788.

3. Ekelund L-G, andothers. Physical fitness as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality inasymptomatic North American men. The Lipid Research Clinics mortalityfollow-up study. The New England Journal of Medicine1988;319:1379-84.

4. Thompson PD, andothers. High density lipoprotein metabolism in endurance athletes andsedentary men. Circulation 1991;84:140 152

5. Assmann G, SchulteH. The prospective cardiovascular Münsterstudy: prevalence andprognostic significance of hyperlipidemia in men with systemichypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 1987;59:9G-17G.

6. Pocock SJ andothers. High density lipoprotein cholesterol is not a major risk factorfor ischaemic heart disease in British men. British Medical Journal1986;292:515-519.

7. Gordon DJ andothers. High-densitylipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Four prospectiveAmerican studies. Circulation 1989;79:8-15.

8. Pocock SJ, ShaperAG, Phillips AN. Concentrations of high density lipoproteincholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol in ischaemic heartdisease. BritishMedical Journal 298, 998-1002, 1989.

9. National ResearchCouncil. Diet and health. Implications for reducing chronic diseaserisk. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989, page 166

10. Medalie JH andothers. Five-year myocardial infarction incidence-II. Association ofsingle variables to age and birthplace. Journal of Chronic Diseases1973;26:325-349.

11. Gordon T. andothers. High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronaryheart disease. American Journal of Medicine 1977;62:707-714.

12. Watkins LO andothers. Racial differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol andcoronary heart disease incidence in the usual-care group of the multiplerisk factor intervention trial. American Journal of Cardiology1987;57:538-545.

13. The Expert Panel.Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel ondetection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol inadults. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988;148:36-69.

14. Kannel WB andothers. Optimal resources for primary prevention of atheroscleroticdiseases. Atherosclerosis study group. Circulation1984;70:157A-205A.

15. Grundy SM.Cholesterol and coronary heart disease: a new era. JAMA1986;256:2849-2858.

16. Hulley SB, RhoadsGG. The plasma lipoproteins as risk factors: comparison ofelectrophoretic and ultracentrifugation results. Metabolism1982;31:773-777.

17. The Multiple RiskFactor Intervention Trial (MR.FIT), the Newcastle trial, the LipidResearch Clinic’s trial, and the Helsinki Heart Study.

18. Yaari S andothers. Associations of serum high density lipoprotein and totalcholesterol with total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in a 7-yearprospective study of 10000 men. The Lancet 1981;1:1011-1015.
– Ancel Keys. Seven Countries. A multivariate analysis of death andcoronary heart disease. Harvard University Press 1980.

19. Rhoads GG,Gulbrandsen CL, Kagan A. Serum lipoproteins and coronary heart diseasein a population study of Hawaii Japanese men. New England Journal ofMedicine 1976;294:293 298.
– The Pooling Project Research Group. Relationship of blood pressure,serum cholesterol, smoking habit, relative weight and ECG abnormalitiesto incidence of major coronary events: final report of the poolingproject. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1978;31:201-306.

20. Conference on thehealth effects of blood lipids: Optimal distributions for populations.Workshop report: Epidemiological section. Preventive Medicine1979;8:612. No LDL data were presented in that report either.

21. Kannel WB,Castelli WP, Gordon T. Cholesterol in the prediction of atheroscleroticdisease. New perspectives based on the Framingham study. Annals ofInternal Medicine 1979;90:85 91.

22. Brown MS,Goldstein JL. How LDL receptors influence cholesterol andatherosclerosis. Scientific American 1984;251:52-60.

23. For more details,read the papers by William Stehbens

24. Ravnskov U. Anelevated serum cholesterol is secondary, not causal, in coronary heartdisease. Medical Hypotheses 1991;36:238-41.

25. Landé KE, SperryWM. Human atherosclerosis in relation to the cholesterol content of theblood serum. Archives of Pathology 1936;22:301-312.

26. Epstein FH,Ostrander LD. Detection of individual susceptibility toward coronarydisease. Progress of Cardiovascular Diseases 1971;13:324-342.”An association between cholesterol concentration and coronaryatherosclerosis was also recognized among individuals without theextreme manifestations of typical hyperlipidemia orhypercholesterol-emia”, the authors wrote, a statement in conflictwith the data and the conclusions of the paper.

27. Paterson JC,Armstrong R, Armstrong EC. Serum lipid levels and the severity ofcoronary and cerebral atherosclerosis in adequately nourished men, 60 to69 years of age. Circulation 1963;27:229-236.

28. Mathur KS, andothers. Serum cholesterol and atherosclerosis in man. Circulation1961;23:847-852.

29. Marek Z,Jaegermann K, Ciba T. Atherosclerosis and levels of serum cholesterol inpostmortem investigations. American Heart Journal 1962;63:768-774.

30. Méndez J, TejadaC. Relationship between serum lipids and aortic atherosclerotic lesionsin sudden accidental deaths in Guatemala City. American Journal ofClinical Nutrition 1967;20:1113-1117.

31. Cabin HS, RobertsWC. Relation of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels to theamount and extent of coronary arterial narrowing by atheroscleroticplaque in coronary heart disease. American Journal of Medicine1982;73:227-234.

32. Feinleib M, andothers. The relation of antemortem characteristics to cardiovascularfindings at necropsy. The Framingham study. Atherosclerosis1979;34:145-157.

33. Pearson TA. Coronary arteriography in the study of the epidemiology of coronaryartery disease. Epidemiol. Rev. 1984;6:140-166.
In his review Pearson mentions a number of angiographic studies which heclaimed had found a relationship between blood cholesterol levels anddegrees of atherosclerosis. But three of them found no relationship; oneof them is reference 34, the other two are: Nitter-Hauge S, Enge I.Relation between blood lipid levels and angiographically evaluatedobstructions in coronary arteries. British Heart Journal1973;35:791-795, and Barboriak JJ, and others. Coronary artery occlusionand blood lipids. American Heart Journal 1974;87:716-721.
An unsupportive study was ignored by Pearson: Fuster V, and others.Arteriographic patterns early in the onset of the coronary syndromes. BritishHeart Journal 1975;37:1250-1255.

34. Cramér K, PaulinS, Werkö L. Coronary angiographic findings in correlation with age,body weight, blood pressure, serum lipids, and smoking habits. Circulation1966;33:888-900.

35. Gore I, Hirst AE,Koseki Y. Comparison of aaortic atherosclerosis in the United States,Japan, and Guatemala. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition1959;7:50-54.

36. Resch JA, OkabeN, Kimoto K. Cerebral atherosclerosis. Geriatrics1969;November:111-132.

37. Ramsay LE, YeoWW, Jackson PR. Dietary reduction of serum cholesterolconcentration:time to think again. British Medical Journal 1991;303:953-957.

38. Shaper AG.Cardiovascular studies in the Samburu tribe of northern Kenya. AmericanHeart Journal 1962;63:437-442.

39. Mann GV, ShafferRD, Sandstead HH. Cardiovascular disease in the Masai. Journal ofAtherosclerosis Research 1964;4:289-312.

40. Lapiccirella V.,and others. Enquête clinique, biologique et cardiogra-phique parmi lestribus nomades de la Somalie qui se nourissent seule-ment de lait. Bulletinof the World Health Organization 1962;27: 681-697.

41. Day J, andothers. Anthropometric, physiological and biochemical differencesbetween urban and rural Maasai. Atherosclerosis 1976;23:357-361.

42. Nichols AB, andothers. Daily nutritional intake and serum lipidlevels. The Tecumseh study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976;29:1384-1392.

43. Weidman WH, andothers. Nutrient intake and serum cholesterol level in normal children 6to 16 years of age. Pediatrics 1978;61:354-359.

44. Frank GC,Berenson GS, Webber LS. Dietary studies and the relationship of diet tocardiovascular disease risk factor variables in 10-year-old children -the Bogalusa heart study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition1978;31:328-340.
– After having divided the children into three groups according to theirblood cholesterol values the researchers found that the children withthe lowest values ate less fat, both saturated and unsaturated, than thechildren with the intermediate and the highest cholesterol values. Nodifference was found between the two latter groups. The ratio betweensaturated and polyunsaturated fat was almost identical in all groups,however. This ratio, considered the best measure of the effect ofdietary fat on blood cholesterol, was not calculated in the tables, norwas it mentioned in the text. Here the authors admitted on the one handthat the diet possibly played only a minor role in the development ofatherosclerosis; on the other hand they said there was, ”as might beexpected”, a relationship between saturated fat and blood cholesterol.And they added that ”such studies do reinforce the need for seriouslyconsidering general modifications of food patterns at a young age”.

45. Morris JN, andothers. Diet and plasma cholesterol in 99 bank men. British MedicalJournal 1963;1:571-576.

46. Kroneld R, andothers. Hälsobeteende och riskfaktorer för hjärt- och kärlsjukdomari östra och sydvästra Finland. Suomen Lääkärilehti1990;45:735-739.

47. Kahn HA, andothers. Serum cholesterol: Its distribution and association with dietaryand other variables in a survey of 10,000 men. Israel Journal of theMedical Sciences 1969;5:1117 1127.
– Jeremyah Stamler’s group performed a similar study on 1900 middle-agedmen. This study is impossible for anyone but statisticians to evaluate,since absolute figures were absent, and not even simple correlationcoefficients were given, except for the relationship between Keys’andHegstedts formula. The relationship between the diet and the risk ofdying from coronary heart disease after the age of 19 was also studied,but again without giving any figures. The amount of saturated fat in thediet did not show any relationship with the risk of dying from coronaryheart disease, the authors admitted, but they added that it was notpossible to draw conclusions from only one study; if their results wereseen ”within the context of the total literature”, they supportedthe diet-heart idea. (Shekelle RB., and others. Diet, serumcholesterol,and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric Study. NewEngland Journal of Medicine 1981;304:65-70.

48. Balogh M, KahnHA, Medalie JH. Random repeat 24-hour dietary recalls. AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition 1971;24:304 310.

49. Keys A.Atherosclerosis: a problem in newer public health. Journal of MountSinai Hospital NY 1953;20:118-39.

50. Yerushalmy J,Hilleboe HE. Fat in the diet and mortality from heart disease. Amethodologic note. New York State Journal of Medicine1957;57:2343-54.

51. Keys A. Coronaryheart disease in seven countries. Circulation 1970;41 (suppl1):1-211.

52. Jacobs D, andothers. 1992. Report of the conference on low bloodcholesterol:mortality associations. Circulation 1992;86:1046-60.

53. Grundy SM. Multifactorial etiology of hypercholesterolemia. Implications forprevention of coronary heart disease. Arteriosclerosis andThrombosis 1991;11:1619-.

54. Marmot MG, BoothM, Beral V. International trends in heart disease mortality. AtherosclerosisReviews 1982;9:19-27.

55. Guberan E.Surprising decline of cardiovascular mortality in Switzerland:1951-1976. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health1979.;33:114-20.

56. Yudkin J. Dietand coronary thrombosis. Hypothesis and fact. The Lancet1957;2:155-62.

57. Slattery ML,Randall DE. Trends in coronary heart disease mortality and foodconsumption in the United States between 1909 and 1980. AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition1988,47:1060-70.

58. Sytkowski PA,Kannel WB, D’Agostino RB. Changes in risk factors and the decline inmortality from cardiovascular disease. New England Journal ofMedicine 1990;322:1635-41.

59. Marmot MG, andothers. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke inJapanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: prevalence ofcoronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. AmericanJournal of Epidemiology 1975;102:514-25.

60. Marmot MG, SymeSL. Acculturation and coronary heart disease inJapanese-Americans. AmericanJournal of Epidemiology 1976;104:225-47.

61. Paul O andothers. A longitudinal study of coronary heart disease. Circulation1963;28:20-31.

62. Medalie JH andothers. Five-year myocardial infarction incidence-II. Association ofsingle variables to age and birthplace. Journal of Chronic Diseases1973;26: 329-49.

63. Yano K and others. Dietary intake and the risk of coronary heart disease inJapanese men living in Hawaii. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition1978;31:1270-1279.

64. Garcia-PalmieriMR and others. Relationship of dietary intake to subsequent coronaryheart disease incidence: the Puerto Rico heart health program. AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition 1980;33: 1818-1827.

65. Gordon T, andothers. Diet and its relation to coronary heart disease and death inthree populations. Circulation 1981;63;500-515.

66. McGee DL andothers. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease in the Honoluluheart program. Relationship to nutrient intake. American Journal ofEpidemiology 1984;119:667-676.

67. Kromhout D,Coulander CDL. Diet, prevalence and 10-year mortality from coronaryheart disease in 871 middle-aged men. American Journal ofEpidemiology 1984;119:733-741.

68. Kushi LH andothers. Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heartdisease. TheIreland-Boston diet-heart study. New England Journal of Medicine1985;312: 811-818.

69. Khaw K,Barrett-Connor E. Dietary fiber and reduced ischemic heart diseasemortality rates in men and women: a 12-year prospective study. AmericanJournal of Epidemiology 1987;126:1093-1102.

70. Posner BM andothers. Dietary lipid predictors of coronary heart disease inmen. Archivesof Internal Medicine 1991;151:1181-7.

71. Zukel WJ andothers. A short-term community study of the epidemiology of coronaryheart disease. A preliminary report of the North Dakota study. AmericanJournal of Public Health 1959;49:1630-1639.

72. Finegan A andothers. Diet and coronary heart disease: dietary analysis on 100 malepatients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1968;21:143-148.

73. Bassett DR andothers. Coronary Heart disease in Hawaii: dietary intake, depot fat,”stress,” smoking, and energy balance in Hawaiian and Japanesemen. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1969;22:1483-1503.

74. Scrimshaw NS,Guzmán MA. Diet and atherosclerosis. Laboratory Investigations1968;18:623-8.

75. Moore MC, GuzmánMA, Schilling PE, Strong JP. Dietary-atherosclerosis study on deceasedpersons. Journal of the American Dietetic Association1976;68:216-23.
– Sorlie PD, Garcia-Palmieri MR, Castillo-Staab MI, Costas R, OalmannMC, Havlik R. Therelation of antemortem factors to atherosclerosis at autopsy. The PuertoRico Heart Health Program. American Journal ofPathology 1981;103:345-52.
– Reed DM, MacLean CJ, Hayashi T. Predictors of atherosclerosis in theHonolulu heart program. I. Biologic, dietary, and lifestylecharacteristics. American Journal of Epidemiology1987;126:214-25.
– Reed DM, and others. A prospective study of cerebral arteryatherosclerosis. Stroke 1988;19:820-5.

76. Researchcommittee. Low-fat diet in myocardial infarction. A controlled trial. TheLancet 1965;2:501-4.
– Rose GA, Thomson WB, Williams RT. Corn oil in treatment of ischaemicheart disease. British Medical Journal 1965;i:1531-3.
– Research committee to the medical research council. Controlled trialof soya-bean oil in myocardial infarction. The Lancet1968;ii:693-700.
– Dayton S, and others. A controlled clinical trial of a diet high inunsaturated fat in preventing complications of atherosclerosis. Circulation1969;40(suppl 2):1-63.
– Leren P. The effect of plasma cholesterol lowering diet in malesurvivors of myocardial infarction. A controlled clinical trial. ActaMedica Scandinavica 1966;suppl 466:1-92.
– Woodhill JM, and others. Low fat, low cholesterol diet in secondaryprevention of coronary heart disease. Adv Exp Med Biol1978;109:317-30.
– Burr ML, and others. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibreintakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarctiontrial (DART). The Lancet1989;2:757-61.
– Frantz ID, and others. Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet oncardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis1989;9:129-35.

77. de Lorgeril M,and others. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondaryprevention of coronary heart disease. The Lancet 1994;343:1454-9.

78. Muldoon MF,Manuck SB, Matthews KA. Lowering cholesterol concentrations andmortality: a quantitiative review of primary prevention trials. BritishMedical Journal 1990;301:309-314.

79. Ravnskov U. Cholesterol lowering trials in coronary heart disease: frequency ofcitation and outcome. British Medical Journal 1992;305:15-19.

80. Davey Smith G,Song F, Sheldon TA. Cholesterol lowering andmortality: the importanceof considering initial level of risk. British Medical Journal1993;306:1367-1373.

81. Bonneux L,Barendregt JJ. Ischaemic heart disease and cholesterol. There´s more toheart disease than cholesterol. British Medical Journal1994;308:1038.
– Ravnskov U. Optimism about drug treatment is unjustified. BritishMedical Journal 1994;308:same issue.

82. Ravnskov U.Implications of 4S evidence on baseline lipid levels. The Lancet1995;346:181.
– Massy ZA, Keane WF, Kasiske BL. Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway:benefits beyond cholesterol reduction? The Lancet1996;347:102-103.
– Vaughan CJ, Murphy MB, Buckley BM. Statins do more than just lowercholesterol. The Lancet 1996;348:1079-1082.

83. Hidaka Y, Eda T,Yonemoto M, Kamei T. Inhibition of cultured vascular smooth muscle cellmigration by simvastatin (MK 733). Atherosclerosis 1992;95:87-94.

84. Meiser BM, andothers. Simvastatin decreases accelerated graft vessel disease afterheart transplantation in an animal model. Transplantation Proceedings1993;25:2077-9.

85. Soma MR, andothers. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors. In vivo effects on carotid intimalthickening in normocholesterolemic rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 13,571-8, 1993.

86. The ScandinavianSimvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterollowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the ScandinavianSimvastatin Survival Study (4S). The Lancet 1994;344:1383-1389.

87. Sacks FM andothers. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardialinfarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. New EnglandJournal of Medicine 1996;335:1001-1009.

88. Shepherd J andothers. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in menwith hypercholesterolemia. New England Journal of Medicine1995;333:1301-1307.

89. Newman TB, HulleySB. Carcinogenicity of lipid-loweringdrugs. JAMA 1996;275:55-60.

90a.Ziajka PE, Wehmeier T.Peripheralneuropathy and lipid-lowering therapy. South Med J 1998;91:667-68. GaistD, Jeppesen U, Andersen M, Garcia Rodriguez LA, Hallas J, Sindrup SH. Statinsand risk of polyneuropathy: a case-control study. Neurology2002;58:1333-7. Ragi E. Neuropathy from statins. BMJ 2001

90b. KingDS, Wilburn AJ, Wofford MR, Harrell TK, Lindley BJ, Jones DW. Cognitiveimpairment associated with atorvastatin and simvastatin. Readalso DuaneGravelines report

90c.GolombBA, Kane T, Dimsdale JE. Severeirritability associated with statin cholesterol lowering. QJM2004;97:229-35.

90d.Golomb BA. Cholesteroland Violence. Is There a Connection? Ann Intern Med1998;128:478-87.

90e. EdisonRJ, Muenke M. Centralnervous system and limb anomalies in case reports of first-trimesterstatin exposure. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1579-82.

90a. Enig MG. Transfatty acids in the food supply: a comprenehsive report covering 60 yearsof research. Enig Associates, Silver Spring, Maryland 1993.
Enig MG. Know Your fats. Thecomplete primer for understanding the nutritions of fats, oils, andcholesterol. Bethesda Press, Silver Spring, Maryland 2000.

91. Gurr MI. Dietarylipids and coronary heart disease: old evidence, new perspective. Progressin Lipid Research 1992;31:195-243.

92. Mann GV.Diet-heart: end of an era. New England Journal of Medicine1977;297:644-650.

93. Mann GV. Coronaryheart disease – “Doing the wrong things.” Nutrition Today1985;July/August:12-14.

94. Oliver MF.Dietary fat and coronary heart disease. British Heart Journal1987;58:423-428.

95. Oliver MF. Mighttreatment of hypercholesterolaemia increase non-cardiac mortality? TheLancet 1991;337:1529-1531.

96. Oliver MF.Consensus or nonsensus conferences on coronary heart disease. TheLancet 1985;1:1087-1089.
– Oliver MF. Dietary fat and coronary heart disease. British HeartJournal 1987;58:423-428.
– Oliver MF. Reducing cholesterol does not reduce mortality. Journalof the American College of Cardiology1988;12:814-817.
– Oliver MF. Doubts about preventing coronary heart disease. Multipleinterventions in middle aged men may do more harm than good. BritishMedical Journal 1992;304:393-394.
– Oliver MF. National cholesterol policies. European Heart Journal1993;14:581-583.

97. Pinckney ER andPinckney C. The Cholesterol Controversy. Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles1973.

98. Reiser R.Saturated fat in the diet and serum cholesterol concentration: acritical examination of the literature. American Journal of ClinicalNutrition 1973;26:524-555.

99. Reiser R. Acommentary on the rationale of the diet-heart statement of the AmericanHeart Association. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition1984;40:654-658.

100. Friedman M,Rosenman RH, Byers SO. Deranged cholesterol metabolism and its possiblerelationship to human atherosclerosis: a review. Journal of Gerontology1955;10:60-85.

101. Rosenman RH. Thequestionable roles of the diet and serum cholesterol in the incidence ofischemic heart disease and its 20th century changes. Homeostasis1993;34:1-43.

102. Smith RL. Diet,blood cholesterol and coronary heart disease: a critical review of theliterature. Vector Enterprises. Vol. 1, 1989; vol. 2, 1991.
– Smith RL. The Cholesterol conspiracy. Warren H. Green. St. Louis,1991.
– Smith RL. Dietary lipids and heart disease. The contriving of arelationship. American Clinical Laboratory 1989;Nov:26-33.

103. StehbensW. An appraisal of cholesterol feeding in experimental atherogenesis. Progressin Cardiovascular Diseases 1986;29:107-128.

104. Stehbens WE. Anappraisal of the epidemic rise of coronary heart disease and its decline. The Lancet 1987;1:606-611.

105. Stehbens WE.Serum cholesterol and atherosclerosis. New Zealand Medical Journal1988;101:795-797.

106. Stehbens WE.Diet and atherogenesis. Nutrition Reviews 1989;47:1-12.
– Stehbens WE. The lipid hypothesis and the role of hemodynamics inatherogenesis. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases1990;33:119-136.
– Stehbens WE. Limitations of the epidemiological method in coronaryheart disease. International Journal of Epidemiology1991;20:818-820.
– Stehbens WE. The hypothetical epidemic of coronary heart disease andatherosclerosis. Medical Hypotheses 1995;45:449-454.
– Stehbens WE. Mechanisms underlying arterial fragility andthe complications of atherosclerosis. Pathobiology 1997;65:1-13
– Stehbens WE. Misuse of “coronary heart disease. Heart1999;82:1-2
– Stehbens WE. The oxidative stress hypothesis ofatherosclerosis: causeor product? Medical Hypotheses 1999;53:507-515.

107. Werkö L. Riskfactors and coronary heart disease – facts or fancy? American HeartJournal 1976;91:87-98.

108. Werkö L.Prevention of heart attacks. Annals of Clinical Research 1979;11:71-79.
– Werkö L. Diet, lipids and heart attacks. Acta Medica Scandinavica1979;206: 435-439.
– Werkö L. The enigma of coronary heart disease and its prevention. ActaMedica Scandinavica 1987;221:323-333.
– Werkö L. Analysis of the MRFITscreenes: a methodological study. Journalof Internal Medicine 1995;237:507-518.

109. Other criticalpapers:

  • Ahrens EH. Dietary fats and coronaryheart disease: unfinished business. The Lancet1979;2:1345-1348.
  • Ahrens EH. The diet-heart questionin 1985: has it really been settled? The Lancet1985;1:1085-1087.
  • Altschule MD. The cholesterolproblem. Medical Counterpoint Jan 1970, page 11; Can diet preventatherogenesis? If so, what diet? Medical Counterpoint Nov1970 page 13.
  • Apfelbaum M. Vivre avec ducholesterol. Éditions du Rocher, Monaco 1992.
  • Atrens DM. The questionable wisdomof a low-fat diet and cholesterol reduction. Social Science &Medicine 1994;433-447.
  • Berger M. The cholesterolnon-consensus. In: Somogyi JC, Biró G, Hötzel D (eds), Nutritionand Cardiovascular Risks. Bibliotheca Nutritio et Dieta1992;nr 49:125-130.
  • Berger M. DerCholesterin-Non-Konsensus in der Primärprävention der koronarenHerzkrankheit. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 1993;82:399-405.
  • Cliff WJ. Coronary heart disease:Animal fat on trial. Pathology 1987;19: 325-328.
  • Hulley SB, Walsh JMB, Newman TB.Health policy on blood cholesterol. Time to change directions. Circulation1992;86:1026 1029.
  • McCormick J, Skrabanek P. Coronaryheart disease is not preventable by population interventions. TheLancet 1988;2:839-41.
  • McMichael J. Prevention of coronaryheart-disease. The Lancet 1976;2:569.
  • McMichael J. Fats and arterialdisease. American Heart Journal 1979;98: 409-412.
  • Meade TW, Chakrabarti R. Arterialdisease research: observation or intervention? The Lancet1972;2:913-916.
  • Mohler H. Die Cholesterin-Neurose.Der Standpunkt des Ernährungswissenschaftlers. Salle-Sauerländer,Frankfurt am Main 1978.
  • Moore TJ. Heart failure. RandomHouse, New York 1989.
  • Olson RE. CHD intervention trialsand all-cause mortality. Circulation 1994;90:2569-2570.
  • Palumbo PJ. National CholesterolEducation Program: does the emperor have any clothes? Mayo ClinicProceedings 1988;63:88-90.
  • Skrabanek P, McCormick J. Folliesand fallacies in medicine. Tarragon Press, Glasgow, 1989.
  • Skrabanek P. Nonsensus consensus. TheLancet 1990;335:1446-1447.
  • Stallones RA. Ischemic heart diseaseand lipids in blood and diet. Annual Reviews of Nutrition1983;3:155-185.
  • Worm N. Ernährung und koronareHerzkrankheit: Wie sinnvoll ist diät? (Nutrition and coronaryheart disease: how important is diet?) Versicherungsmedizin1995;47:116-121.

110. The Lipid ResearchClinic’s coronary primary prevention trial results. 1. Reduction inincidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1984;251:351-64.

111. Miettinen TA,and others. Multifactorial primary prevention of cardiovascular diseasesin middle-aged men. JAMA 1985;254:2097-2102.

112. Marmot MG, andothers. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke injapanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: prevalence ofcoronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. AmericanJournal of Epidemiology 1975;102:514-525.

113. Marmot MG, SymeSL. Acculturation and coronary heart disease inJapanese-Americans. AmericanJournal of Epidemiology 1976;104:225-247.

114. LaRosa, andothers. The cholesterol facts. A summary of the evidence relatingdietary fats, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. A jointstatement by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and BloodInstitute. Circulation 1990;81:1721-1733.

115. Anderson KM,Castelli WP, Levy D. Cholesterol andmortality. 30 years of follow-upfrom the Framingham study. JAMA 1987;257:2176-2180.

116. Ravnskov U. Quotation bias in reviews of the diet-heart idea. Journal of ClinicalEpidemiology 1995;48:713-719.


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© Uffe RavnskovLast updated January 10, 2006